Chapter - 8 Artificial Intelligence


8.1              Concept of AI
·         Artificial Intelligence is a branch of science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human like fashion.
·         AI is also helps in other fields like math, psychology, biology and philosophy besides computer science.
8.2              Component of AI
The basic components of AI are as follows:
·         Export system: it is a part of AI that performs task similar to human expert.
·         Neutral Network: it is a part similar to nervous system of human beings.
·         Logical AI: it gives result on the basis of particular condition.
·         Search: it is used to find the best solution to a problem among many possible solutions.
·         Pattern Recognition: it is concerned with recognizing pattern such as speech, image, stream of text etc. 
Example: finger print recognition, voice recognition etc.
8.3              Uses of AI
           i.         Game playing: AI in computer has been used in playing different intellectual games like chess. Computer can play master level chess. Other various games also can play due to AI.
         ii.         Speech recognition: Speech recognition is a way of commanding computers to perform work through speech rather than inputting through input devices. From 1990s, speech recognition has reached a practical level for limited purpose.
       iii.         Understanding natural language: Due to the use of AI, computer can easily understand the meaning of the text written in natural language.
       iv.         Automated planning and scheduling: NASA’s remote agent program became the first on – board autonomous planning to control the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft which lies 100 million miles from earth.
         v.         Robotics: Robots have been used in various fields such as medicine, factory, chemistry etc which is one of the most essence examples of AI.

8.4              Ethical aspect of AI
The ethics of AI must consider moral and legal issues as well as potential misuse of technology. The AI should be beneficiary to human kind not an evil. If machines replace people like therapist, nurse, judge or police officer, we will find ourselves frustrated. Eventually, AI will be a threat to human dignity. However, Authors believe that machines will never achieve the intelligence as the humans and they will never be threat to humans.

Homework Questions [Unit-8]
1.      What is AI? Explain the application areas of AI. (2069, 70 ‘C’,71-C)
2.      What is AI? How it is affects the modern society? (2059, 2064, 2068)

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