Chapter - 9 Contemporary Technology

This chapter covers the contents of new and emerging technologies in the world.

e-Businesses (e-Commerce)

The full form of the term is electronic business. As its name suggests business activities
takes place by means of computers connected through a network. Electronic business
can occur between a user and vendor through an online information services, the
internet or other electronic forms. The main component of transaction is just electronic
data interchange. This process uses a set of standards for controlling the transfer of
business documents such as purchase orders and invoices orders.

Types of e-Commerce:
i) business to consumer (B2C)
ii) business to business (B2B)
iii) consumer to consumer (C2C)
iv) consumer to business (C2B)

Advantages of e-commerce:
a) We can buy or sell on our convenient time.
b) It makes buy or sell procedure fast.
c) It is easy to start.
d) No physical company set up is needed.
e) Customers can get the desired item very easily without roaming here and there.


If the teaching and learning process is conducted by electronically is called e-learning. e-
Learning is essentially the computer and network enabled transfer of skills and

knowledge throughout the world.
e-Learning refers to using electronic applications and processes to learn. e-Learning
applications and processes include web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual
classrooms and digital collaboration.

Advantages of e-learning are:
a) It improves performance by accessing different locations.
b) It increases access by joining class at your free time.
c) It is convenience and flexible to learners.
d) Its cost is less than regular mode universities.
e) It reduces overall training time.


E-Governance is the use of Information and communication Technologies to transform
the traditional government by making it easily accessible, transparent, effective and
accountable to the general people. In e-Governance there are no distinct boundaries to
involvement and deed of jobs by the government. It is a one stop portal such as, where citizens have access variety of information and services.
Advantage of e-Governances:-
a) It is easy to access data and information.
b) It becomes one portal for delivering government services.
c) It broadly handles Government to Government (G2G), Government To Business
(G2B) and Government To Citizen (G2C) data and information services.
d) The government services will be made available to the citizens in a convenient,
efficient and transparent manner.
e) There will be no territory boundaries, not even bounded by geographical regions.


The use of Information and communication Technologies to provide, enhance or speed
up health care services by accessing linking clinics or physicians’ offices to central
hospitals. This process is helpful to treat patient situated at remote region. e- Medicines
generally refer to use of communication and Information Technologies for the delivery of
clinical care.
Advantages of e-Medicines are:-
a) Medication on remote area becomes possible, where access of qualified
professional is not available.
b) If equipment available, knowledge sharing at one common point possible by using
c) This facility will be available at home if there is internet facility.

Virtual Reality:
It is a simulated 3-D environment that a user can experience and manipulate as these
were physical. The user sees the environment on display screens, possibly mounted with
special pairs of goggles. Virtual reality is a term that applies to computer simulated
environments that can simulate places in the real world as well as in imaginary worlds.
The advantages of virtual Reality are:-
a) Military application for testing, implanting and training.
b) Medical field for practicener purposes.
c) It is broadly used in flight training and gaming applications.
d) It is mainly used in computer related manufacturing with simulation.
e) Virtual Reality is also used in motion pictures.

It is a branch of engineering devoted to the creation and training of robots. Robotics
works within a wide range of fields, such as mechanical and electronic engineering,
cybernetics, bionics and artificial intelligence.
Robotics is related to electronics, mechanics and software. The electromechanical digital
devices process and store the information which is directed by the software. The
mechanical parts generate a frameset and shape for the robots. And software creates
the robots efficient for the execution of jobs for which it is designed.
Application areas of robotics are as follows:-
a) It is broadly used in industry where humans are at high risk.
b) It is used for accuracy cutting and finishing.
c) It is used in vehicle and car factory automation.
d) They are also used for disable people.
e) Bomb diffusion, land mine detection and military operations also use robots.

1. What are the objectives of e-governance? Explain.
2. Write short notes on:
     a) E- learning. b) E-commerce
3. What is internet? Explain the uses of internet in business.
4. Define the terms e-learning and virtual reality.

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